What are the pharmacological effects of epimedium extract?

Icariin

 Epimedium extract is a product processed from the dried stems and leaves of Epimedium brevicornum and others.

 There are about 30 species of Epimedium plants in the Berberidaceae family around the world, and 20 species are found in my country. Except for Epimedium korea, which is distributed in northern Korea, the others are endemic to my country. There are many epimedium producing areas in my country, mainly in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Gansu, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei and other places.

Epimedium extract Pharmacological effects

Epimedium extract Effect on sexual function

 Epimedium extract has certain effects on promoting gonadal function. Flavonoids such as icariin have the effect of tonifying the kidneys and strengthening yang. 30-1000 μg/l can promote the secretion of estradiol by follicular granulosa cells, and 1000 μg/l can promote the secretion of corticosterone by adrenocortical cells. At the same time, EPS can increase gonadal hormone levels, mainly increasing FSH levels.

Improve the body’s immune function

 Epimedium pilosa 50% methanol extract can inhibit lymphocyte transformation. Epimedium total flavonoids can increase cell function and antibodies in mice with “Yang deficiency”, and significantly enhance human T cell immune function.  Both EPS and EI have immunomodulatory effects.

Epimedium extract anti-oxidation

 Both EPS and EI have antioxidant activity, which can enhance antioxidant enzyme activity and reduce the effects of free radical products.

Epimedium extract anti-aging effect

 Epimedium extract can resist aging and prolong life by affecting cell generation, prolonging the growth period, regulating the immune and secretory systems, improving body metabolism and the functions of various organs.

Epimedium extract cardiovascular effects

 The non-amino acid fraction in the icariol extract can significantly increase the coronary flow of isolated rabbit hearts. Decoctions and alcohol infusions have a blood pressure lowering effect. Icariin can directly relax vascular smooth muscles and dilate coronary arteries, femoral arteries and cerebral arteries. The mechanism of action is to inhibit the influx of extracellular calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle.

Epimedium extract antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory effects

 In vitro tests show that Epimedium has a strong inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus. It has inhibitory effects on poliovirus, E-CHO virus and coxsackie virus cultured in tissues. Subcutaneous injection of epimedium methanol extract can significantly inhibit egg white foot swelling in rats, and intragastric administration of epimedium to rabbits can reduce the increase in capillary permeability caused by histamine.

Lipid-lowering and blood-sugar-lowering effects

 Rabbits with experimental hyperlipidemia were given epimedium water decoction by gavage for 10 days, which had the effect of reducing B-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Epimedium extract has obvious hypoglycemic effect after being administered to rats with experimental hyperglycemia.  .

Epimedium extract anti-tumor effect

 Epimedium total flavonoids can significantly improve the phagocytic function of macrophages and T lymphocyte transformation rate in tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that it can promote the non-specific killing of tumor cells by macrophages and the specific and cytotoxic effects of T lymphocytes. It has a certain restoring effect on the low cellular immune function of tumor-bearing mice. It can also increase the spleen-body ratio, significantly increase the red blood cell C3b receptor rosette rate and reduce the red blood cell immune complex rosette rate. It is suggested that epimedium total flavonoids can increase the cellular immune function and red blood cell immune function of tumor-bearing mice, and can inhibit the growth of tumor cells to a certain extent.

 The pharmacological effects related to epimedium’s functions of nourishing kidney yang and strengthening muscles and bones include enhancing gonadal function, regulating the body’s immune function, promoting bone growth, and delaying aging. Epimedium also has various effects such as strengthening the heart, lowering blood pressure, anti-arrhythmia, increasing cerebral blood flow, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, lowering blood lipids, anti-tumor, etc., and has high medicinal and health care value. However, today’s development research is still in its infancy, the research on the active ingredients of Epimedium is not in-depth enough, and the microscopic mechanism of pharmacological effects observed on the macroscopic level needs further study. Therefore, it is necessary to take advantage of my country’s epimedium resources and combine traditional medical experience with modern science and technology to conduct in-depth research on its active ingredients, preparation technology, pharmacological effects and clinical applications. Epimedium may become a Drugs with good development prospects for enhancing immune function and immune regulation, anti-osteoporosis, and treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have broad application prospects.

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